Committed to the idea that salvation could be reached through faith
and by divine grace only, Luther vigorously objected to the corrupt
practice of selling indulgences. Acting on this belief, he wrote the
“Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences,” also known as
“The 95 Theses,” a list of questions and propositions for debate.
Popular legend has it that on October 31, 1517 Luther defiantly nailed a
copy of his 95 Theses to the door of the Wittenberg Castle church. The
reality was probably not so dramatic; Luther more likely hung the
document on the door of the church matter-of-factly to announce the
ensuing academic discussion around it that he was organizing.
The 95 Theses, which would later become the foundation of the
Protestant Reformation, were written in a remarkably humble and academic
tone, questioning rather than accusing. The overall thrust of the
document was nonetheless quite provocative. The first two of the theses
contained Luther’s central idea, that God intended believers to seek
repentance and that faith alone, and not deeds, would lead to salvation.
The other 93 theses, a number of them directly criticizing the practice
of indulgences, supported these first two.
In addition to his criticisms of indulgences, Luther also reflected
popular sentiment about the “St. Peter’s scandal” in the 95 Theses:
Why does not the pope, whose wealth today is greater than the
wealth of the richest Crassus, build the basilica of St. Peter with his
own money rather than with the money of poor believers?
The 95 Theses were quickly distributed throughout Germany and then
made their way to Rome. In 1518, Luther was summoned to Augsburg, a city
in southern Germany, to defend his opinions before an imperial diet
(assembly). A debate lasting three days between Luther and Cardinal
Thomas Cajetan produced no agreement. Cajetan defended the church’s use
of indulgences, but Luther refused to recant and returned to Wittenberg.